Brief History of the Internet
The internet is essentially a global network of computers. After computers were invented, some American computer scientists discovered they could be used for communication. This was the birth of what we now call the World Wide Web. It is not possible to credit the invention of the internet to a particular person. There were plenty of people involved in its formation as we are going to see below.
It all started when the US government decided to form ARPA (Advanced Research Project Agency) which was dedicated to coming up with technological advancements primarily to keep up with Russia. Since computers already existed, all they had to do was find a way of enabling communication between two different computers.
They reaped their fruits of their hard work on 29th October 1969 when the first computer network was established and was named ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). They tested it by sending a message from the University of California to the Stanford research institute.
This was accomplished under the management of Lawrence Roberts who was under Robert Taylor, the director of the project. Leonard Kleinrock first came up with the packet switching model in the early stages of the project.
Later on, in 1967, Donald Davies presented the model at the National Physics Laboratory in UK. This paved the way for the invention of more advanced network protocols.
After establishing a network between two computers, they then proceeded to create networks between multiple computers. When they got that out of the way, they went on and tried creating a network of networks (Internetworking). All this took place in the period of late 1960’s and early 1970’s.
Later TCP/IP protocol was invented to support communication between several networks. This is the backbone of the internet since it is still being used today. It is the standard data communication model used by most network nodes. ARPA had made a lot of progress however, the internet was not fully formed.
In the early 1980’s, a computer scientist at CERN Switzerland (Tim Berners-lee) decided to come up with a way of linking the then growing information system to all nodes in the network. This resulted in the creation of the World Wide Web.
Once the internet had proven to be a necessity for research and education, NSF (National Science Foundation) supported the establishment of supercomputers at a couple of universities in the US. It was now named NSFNET. It was mainly for research and education purposes and it only connected computers in the US.
This version of the internet was largely used by researchers to share information and so it only had basic html pages with tables. In 1995 the internet became public without any restrictions. Private commercial companies came in to the picture and started forming ISP’s (Internet Service Providers).
Ever since then, the advancement in the internet’s capabilities has increased exponentially to become the massive platform that it is today.
From what we have read, it is clear that the internet was created by the US government through ARPA. Though the idea of forming networks had been mentioned in other countries, ARPA were the first to come up with something to show for it. After that, computer scientists from all over the world started working together to improve it to make it what it is today.