Ecology is the science that studies relationships between living beings. Ecology studies different geological ages. it shows the variation presented species over time. We also know that much of this variation is due to the adaptations that organisms have to survive in their changing environment.
Ecology has been always in the interest area of human beings since the early days of history. In primitive society every individual needed to have accurate knowledge of their environment to survive. In fact, civilization began when man learned to use the tools and fire, which changed the nature. Currently, humans possess adequate knowledge about ecology to keep their existence safe.
Ecology, as a science, has experienced gradual development in its history. recent use of ecology term, has taken place in the ecological concepts of Hippocrates, Aristotle and other Greek philosophers.
As an Example of ecology scientists, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, studied food chains and regulation of the population, which are important areas of modern ecology, besides being a precursor of microscopy.
Origin of the ecology term
It has been accepted as a field of biology, dates back to approximately 1900, and the term ecology is part of everyday vocabulary since then.
Ecology term derives from the Greek word oikos, meaning “house” or “where you live” and logos, meaning “study”.
Ecology is usually defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with their environment.
Ecology is divided into three main branches:
Autoecology or ecology of the individual: It is the study of the environment and its relationship with a given group.
Demoecología or population ecology: It is responsible for studying the mutual relations between individuals that are grouped into populations and their relations with the environment.
Synecology or community ecology:Studies on populations in an interaction between themselves and with their environment. If an individual is considered in isolation, it will be influenced by factors of original life, which are known as abiotic factors.
If an individual is studied in relation to the same other species or different species, can be seen that it is influenced by them, particularly by the biotic (living) environment in which it operates.