Pollution is a detrimental change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, land and water. These changes harmfully affect human’s and animal’s life and the plant species in the ecosystem. Environmental Pollution could also cause damages to the raw material reserves.
Environmental Pollution types:
- Biological contamination
- Physical contamination
- Chemical contamination
Biological contamination is caused by microorganisms.
Physical contaminants examples are noise, radioactivity etc…
Chemical contaminants are soaps, detergents, wastewater, pesticides, fertilizers, carbon monoxide, and other gases from car exhausts and factories.
The air, land and water are the main resources affected by environmental pollution.
The air is affected by contaminants in the form of gases (excessive carbon dioxide and, carbon monoxide) and matter particles (powders, sprays, etc.).Air pollution also has harmful effects on vegetation and animals. It may cause dust allergies or chronic irritation in the airways of humans.
The land is contaminated mainly by domestic or industrial solid waste accumulated in landfills for relatively long periods. Contamination of land allows the proliferation of insects, as well as pathogens that can cause disease.
Water is the primary target of pollution. Water pollution is totally caused by human activities like dumped feces, food, soaps, chemicals, lead, mercury, chromium and etc…
The contaminated water must be prevented for domestic use. Many of the pollutants are highly toxic to humans and other species and many infectious diseases are transmitted through contaminated water.
Individually, each of humans may contribute to pollution control with actions such as:
- Avoid throwing down food waste, paper, glass, etc…
- Keep cars and other vehicles in good condition, so as to produce the least amount of smoke and toxic gases possible.
- Avoid burning substances, such as paints and plastics (tires), they emit toxic gases.
- Reduce consumption of detergents, disinfectants, insecticides, plastics and non-biodegradable materials.
- Save energy and water at home and avoid wasting.
- Help the recycling of materials.
- Protect wildlife and ecological reserves in the country.
At the governmental level measures to prevent environmental degradation have to be enacted. These are regulations for industrial processes, which require the use of special equipment to reduce emissions of pollutants and ensure the reuse of water and other materials.