What is a restriction enzyme

restriction enzyme Before the 1970′s the goal of isolating a single gene from a large chromosome was impossible. A gene is much different from a...

How can bacteria sense each other: bio luminescence.

Vibrio fisheri are a marine gram negative bacterium and they live symbiotically with marine animals like the squid below. However these glowing bacteria are only...

What is an ELISA assay

ELIZA ASSAY In this 96 well plate the wells with the darker wells have a greater concentration of a specific protein than lighter wells. Any...

development of drugs against asthma and allergies

Scientists have found something that the  drugs against asthma and allergies can be improved. To a higher level The TLR4 receptor, present on epithelial and immune cells,...

How can our immune system suppress itself? T-Regulatory Cells

T-Regulatory Cells The adaptive immune system is brilliantly designed to defend us from any type of pathogen through combinations of cell types, T-cells, B-cells, Natural...

How is blood pressure measured in small animals?

  How is it that pharmaceutical companies can develop drugs for humans that lower their blood pressure? Drugs like Lipitor, Levacor, Zocor, and other blood...

Obesity is Linked to Less Diversity of Bacteria in the Gut Microbiome

The gut microbiome can be considered an equivalent of a fingerprint of the gut in the sense that everyone has a unique community of bacteria growing...

naproxen vs ibuprofen

  I recently argued with a coworker about the differences between ibuprofen, the compound use in drugs like Advil, and naproxen sodium, the active compound in Aleve....

How is 16s rRNA extracted and used to determine microbial diversity?

The molecular analysis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), specifically the 16s sub unit is crucial to examining the diversity of microorganisms. The sequences of the...

unique heavy or light chain variable regions produced by rearrangement

In immunology a major topic of discussion early on is the rearrangement of variable gene segments to form the complete variable region, either the...