Matter is Everyting Around You
Matter is made up of a particular material. It has its own shape, size and color. The shape, size and color are the properties of the objects that allow distinguishing between them.
Another common feature is that all matters have a place in space. The larger the matter, the more space it will take.
Another property of all matters is that some weigh more than others because they have more mass. Mass is a measure of how much matter is in a certain object. To measure the mass in an object it is weighed. The unit used to express the weight of the matter is the kilogram.
Air is known to have occupied space and therefore is also a matter. Air is an example of material in gaseous state. Steam coming out of the pot when water is boiled is gaseous water.
The matter can also be found in two forms: liquid and solid.
The matter has special properties depending on the state in which you are.
Solid matters have a certain way and almost always preserved. Solids exist in many shapes, sizes and textures.
Liquid matters, however, have its own form, but take on the shape of the container in which they are contained.
In a glass with lemonade, the liquid will take the shape of the glass. If you empty the lemonade in a bowl, it will occupy the space with the shape of the plate. As liquid matters, gases also take the form of container in which they are found.
Matter is made up of particles called atoms. Atoms are so small that you cannot see naked eye, but are part of anything and constantly move within the materials. How atoms behave makes matter has different properties.
The atoms in the solid matters are very close to each other and do not move or change their places. Atoms of liquid matters and gases are further apart and move constantly. Relatively gas movement is faster than in liquids.
Liquids and gases take the shape of their container because its components are moving and pushing each other.
Physical changes of Matter
Matter can change from one form to another or from one state to another.
When kneading a loaf of dough into a ball, the only thing that changed was the shape and size but the matter remains the same. The dough was a bar and later became a ball, but still clay.
Those changes are called physical changes, because the material does not change its composition.
An example of physical changes of matter is occurring daily in nature occurring in the water. When pouring liquid water into a container and put it in the freezer, you can see after a few hours, that water becomes ice. If you boil the water it transforms into steam. Water is still water, and is present in various states: ice, vapor and liquid.
State changes of the water are due to changes in temperature. To make ice you have to cool the water putting it in the freezer. If you put the water in the kettle, its temperature increases because it becomes heated and then turns into steam. When you heat an ice it also turns into liquid and then steam.
These changes of state have their own name:
When water changes from liquid to gas, the process is called evaporation. When the steam is cooled and converted back to liquid it is called condensation.
When water changes from liquid to solid, solidification occurs and if the water in solid, melts, and passes into the liquid state, the change is called fusion.
Liquid to steam = evaporation
Liquid to solid = solidification
There are other changes which modifies the composition of matter. These are called chemical changes.
An example of chemical change is burning a paper or preparing chocolate milk.
When you burn a piece of paper it turns into ashes. If you add chocolate to milk, you change it chemically. In such matter changes its composition changed.
These are changes that can cause matter to form a new matter from the initial components.
When making a cake, you need ingredients like butter, milk, eggs and flour. These products are examples of materials, but when they are mixed and put into the oven; their properties are combined and converted into a cake, which is a new field.