Effects of air pollution should not be evaluated solely. It has an interaction with both soil and water. You cannot isolate the events that happen in the air of those occurring in the water or on land, since there is a dependency derived from biogeochemical cycles among them. Between these three, there is an “interaction” resulting in permanent exchange of matter and energy

For example; if the air is polluted with sulfur oxide, then it turns into acids, such as sulfuric acid, and then fall to the ground in the form of acid rain. Thus sulfur oxide in air also affects soil and water. 

Effects of air pollution on  water cycle

If the air gets polluted and forms acid rain, water of rivers, lakes or the sea suffer the consequences of those emissions. Consequently it causes huge harms to living beings because of altered chemical composition and quality of the water.

The Factors for Water Pollution:

Biological agents including countless bacteria, viruses, protozoa and other parasites reach humans through water. These diseases cause many deaths worldwide, especially in children.

  • Organic waste: food debris or organisms cause eutrophication directly affecting aquatic life.
  • Inorganic Chemicals: Household and industrial wastes, especially sewage, cause water pollution through acids, oxides, trace   metals and toxic substances such as lead and cadmium. The presence of these contaminants makes the water inappropriate for drinking; it gives damage to animals, plants and human health.
  • Substance organic chemicals: pesticides, fertilizers, detergents and even oil, causes water pollution and threaten human health and endanger the lives of plants and animals.
  • Radioactive substances: some radioisotopes are soluble in water, and during this period, its increased concentration harms the food chains.  Secondary or third level consumers of these food groups affected from the water pollution caused by radioactive substances.

Contaminants which cause water pollution also disrupt the cycle, which helps in maintaining the temperature of the planet. The bodies of water that suffer more damage by pollution are the rivers. In normal conditions, the rivers are able to disintegrate” contaminants especially if it is degradable wastes. However, when the level of Contaminants rises or when the river is diverted for irrigation or diverted for the dams, the contaminants cannot be removed and the water becomes unusable.


 Effects of Air Pollution on Oxygen and Carbon Cycle

Oxygen is a kind of vital element without which life could not exist. It is present in the atmosphere and dissolved in the water .

Oxygen is essential to carry out the process of respiration, during which the energy needed to perform the functions of the body is produced. Oxygen is produced by photosynthesis. The plants absorb carbon dioxide and through a series of chemical reactions produce organic compounds such as glucose and release oxygen.

Land animals get the oxygen they need from the air and as dissolved in water. The amount of oxygen in the air also decreases as a result of logging or absence of vegetation cover.

Carbon can be found by forming salts or molecules like carbon dioxide. This element (C) is perhaps one of the most important      for living since the vital compounds produced from it by photosynthesis. These vital compounds are Water and Oxygen which are the subject matter for those of living organisms. The oxygen is usually created from CO 2 and water through photosynthesis. Furthermore, the presence of water also depends largely on this important compound.

One of the most important powers of carbon as carbon dioxide is the ability to absorb ultraviolet rays and ability to maintained ambient temperature. Without carbon dioxide the planet could be a large mass of ice. On Earth, carbon is distributed in the atmosphere, in the waters, soil, and fossil fuels.

Excessive forest fires causes the increase of CO 2 in the atmosphere, deforestation reduces the ability of the forests to absorb CO 2. Furthermore, one of the most dangerous consequences of increased CO 2 level is global warming.

 Effects of Air Pollution on Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen is the most abundant element in the air, as it exists by 78%, but it is also a big problem when combined with oxygen as it can lead to acid compounds which comprise the acid rain. Most organisms cannot directly absorb the nitrogen and only obtain from food chains. If useful bacteria are killed by the harmful effects of toxic substances, other living things would remain devoid of that element.

Misuse and overuse of soil cultivation causes the increase of that element. Natural nitrogen stocks are also depleted by immoderate use in the manufacturing of fertilizers.

Effects of Air Pollution on Sulfur and Phosphate

These two elements are used by living things as nutrients but both are losing their veins as a result of irrational exploitation to make fertilizer or other commercial products.

Because everything in nature has a constant interaction and all processes are interrelated, if any biogeochemical cycle is altered, it would affect all other conditions. For this reason, it is very difficult to isolate an event the other, then the exchange of matter and energy is in constant flux.


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